(04-13-2010 12:26 PM)Low Carb Cheater Wrote: My personal "take" on all this is that the whole cephalic response and such are bigger in theory than in actuality. And nobody knows for sure, and the "facts" change. For example, DANDR bans caffeine in induction, The New Atkins reverses this position actually citing a study that it can assist weight loss. ... Stuff like that.
(04-14-2010 01:12 PM)deannaintx Wrote: My weight loss stalled for a while and I think I've linked it to drinking Splenda-sweetened soft drinks, there are a lot of them here. Went back to water (I drank only water for about 6 years) and I seem to be back on track.
(04-14-2010 04:01 PM)Noturningback Wrote: Splenda and Astpertame do not seem to raise my blood sugar. However, I've tried several times to get off sugar free products. It is very difficult for me. My problem is mainly Crystal Light drinks. I'm not much of a water drinker - especially during the winter. I have no problems giving up diet sodas. Maybe unsweetened tea is the answer? It's my biggest vice that I want to conquer.
The debate goes on and on as to whether or not artificial sweetners raise blood glucose, lower it, or have no discernible effect. I think the variety of responses suggest that this is an individual response. One underappreciated possibility is the impact of psychological conditioning on the response of BG to artificial sweeteners, as I've argued for in this other thread
on this forum.
Low Carb Cheater, I know from your other posts that you are skeptical of the role of cephalic phase insulin in modulating appetite, but I wanted to share with you an article by Karen Teff called "Physiological Effects of Flavour Perception"
which provides a very nice overview of how the flavor-insulin-appetite linkage originates in connections between the oropharyngeal region, the brain, and peripheral receptors and secretory apparatus in the digestive tract. Cephalic phase insulin appears to play a role that is disproportionate to its quantified level. According to Teff:
Quote:An additional characteristic of the cephalic phase reflexes is that they are often of smaller magnitude than their postprandial counterparts, such that neural activation by the perception of food flavour results in a mimicking of what occurs during the postprandial phase but on a smaller scale...It has been postulated that the cephalic phase reflexes are conditioned responses that provide information on the quantity and quality of the food being ingested, thereby allowing the body to make adaptive changes....elicting the the cephalic phase reflexes by perceiving the flavour of food will increase food consumption...rats with larger cephalic phase insulin responses tend to gain more weight than do animals with smaller responses.
Teff also reports on studies showing that administering food directly to the stomach of rats led to reduced insulin and reduced weight gain:
Quote:Because flavour acts on receptors in the head and mouth region, bypassing these receptors by the direct administration of nutrients into the stomach leads to a lack of activation of the parasympathetic nervous system and, hence, no stimulation of the cephalic phase reflexes.
Teff goes on to point out that the cephalic phase insulin response has been shown to occur in rates for both caloric and non-caloric sweetners (like saccharin), although the response is not consistent for humans. She hypothesizes that this variability is due to differences in "cognitive attitudes" towards foods.
In short, individual differences in food flavor preferences and sensitivities , mirrored by different conditioned secretory responses, could well account for why some individuals get an insulin spike in response to artificial sweeteners, whereas others have no such response.